WPF 之 Binding 对数据的校验与转换(三)

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一、前言

​ Binding 的作用就是架在 SourceTarget 之间的桥梁,数据可以在这座桥梁的帮助下来流通。就像现实中的桥梁会设置一些关卡进行安检一样,Binding 这座桥上也可以设置关卡对数据的有效性进行校验。不仅如此,当两端要求使用不同的数据类型时,我们还可以为数据设置转换器。

​ Binding 用于数据有效性校验的关卡是它的 ValidationRules 属性,用于数据转换的关卡是它的 **Converter ** 属性。

二、Binding 对数据的校验

​ 例如:我们把一个 Slider 的Value 属性和 TextBox 的 Text 属性双向绑定在一起, Slider 的Value 的有效值是 0~100。当我们使用 Binding 绑定数值时,需要对该 Binding 的 ValidationRules 添加校验规则。具体实现如下所示:

​ 第一步:我们声明一个 RangeValidationRule 类编写校验规则,该类需要继承 ValidationRule 类(该类为抽象类),ValidationRule类的作用是提供创建自定义规则的一个方式,旨在检查用户输入的有效性。具体代码如下:

  public class RangeValidationRule : ValidationRule
    {
        public override ValidationResult Validate(object value, CultureInfo cultureInfo)
        {
            if (double.TryParse(value.ToString(), out var d))
            {
                if (d >= 0 && d <= 100)
                {
                    return new ValidationResult(true, null);
                }
            }
            return new ValidationResult(false, "Validation value");
        }
    }

​ 第二步:对 TextBox 的 Text 属性进行 Binding 绑定,并对该 Binding 的 ValidationRules 添加一个校验规则 RangeValidationRule 类,具体实现如下:

    <StackPanel Grid.Row="0">
           <TextBox x:Name="TextBox0" Margin="5" Height="50" VerticalContentAlignment="Center" ToolTip="{Binding ElementName=TextBox0,Path=e}">
               <TextBox.Text>
                   <Binding ElementName="Slider0" Path="Value" UpdateSourceTrigger="PropertyChanged">
                       <Binding.ValidationRules>
                           <local:RangeValidationRule ></local:RangeValidationRule>
                       </Binding.ValidationRules>
                   </Binding>
               </TextBox.Text>
           </TextBox>
            <Slider x:Name="Slider0" Margin="5" Minimum="0" Maximum="100"></Slider>
       </StackPanel>

然后,我们在文本框中,输入200,发现 TextBox 会显示红色边框,这表示数值是错误的,具体显示如下图:

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三、Binding 的数据转换

​ 例如:我们实现如下一个程序,程序的用途是在列表里向玩家显示一些军用飞机的状态。数据类型如下:

  public enum Category
    {
        Bomber,
        Fighter,
    }

    public enum State
    {
        Available,
        Locked,
        Unknown,
    }

    public class Plane
    {
        public Category Category { get; set; }
        public string Name { get; set; }
        public State State { get; set; }
    }

​ 在UI中,Plane 的 Category 属性被映射为图片,State 被映射为 CheckBox 的 IsChecked 属性。具体转换规则如下:

public class CategoryToSourceConverter : IValueConverter
    {
        public object Convert(object value, Type targetType, object parameter, CultureInfo culture)
        {
            var c = (Category)value;
            switch (c)
            {
                case Category.Bomber:
                    return "image/bomber.png";
                case Category.Fighter:
                    return "image/fighter.png";
            }
            return new ValidationResult(false, "Validation Value");
        }

        public object ConvertBack(object value, Type targetType, object parameter, CultureInfo culture)
        {
            throw new NotImplementedException();
        }
    }



    public class StateToBoolConverter : IValueConverter
    {
        public object Convert(object value, Type targetType, object parameter, CultureInfo culture)
        {
            var s = (State) value;
            switch (s)
            {
                case State.Available:
                    return true;
                case State.Locked:
                    return false;
                default:
                    return null;
            }
        }

        public object ConvertBack(object value, Type targetType, object parameter, CultureInfo culture)
        {
            var b = (bool?) value;
            switch (b)
            {
                case true:
                    return State.Available;
                case false:
                    return State.Locked;
                default:
                    return State.Unknown;
            }
        }
    }

​ 我们添加一个 ViewModel 绑定到 UI 上,ViewModel 代码如下(属性变更可以阅读 ):

 public class Window3VM : NotifyProperty
    {
        private ObservableCollection<Plane> _planes;
        private string _output;

        public ObservableCollection<Plane> Planes
        {
            get => _planes;
            set => SetProperty(ref _planes, value);
        }

        public string Output
        {
            get => _output;
            set => SetProperty(ref _output, value);
        }
    }

​ 我们把 ViewModel 绑定到 UI 界面上,并把转换规则添加到对应的 Binding 上,具体实现如下:

<Window x:Class="UI.Window3"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:UI"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        d:DataContext="{d:DesignInstance local:Window3VM}"
        Title="Window3" Height="500" Width="600">
    <Window.Resources>
       <local:CategoryToSourceConverter x:Key="CTS"></local:CategoryToSourceConverter>
        <local:StateToBoolConverter x:Key="STB"></local:StateToBoolConverter>
    </Window.Resources>
   <Grid>
       <Grid.RowDefinitions>
           <RowDefinition Height="100"></RowDefinition>
           <RowDefinition Height="*"></RowDefinition>
       </Grid.RowDefinitions>
       <StackPanel Grid.Row="0">
           <TextBox x:Name="TextBox0" Margin="5" Height="50" VerticalContentAlignment="Center" ToolTip="{Binding ElementName=TextBox0,Path=e}">
               <TextBox.Text>
                   <Binding ElementName="Slider0" Path="Value" UpdateSourceTrigger="PropertyChanged">
                       <Binding.ValidationRules>
                           <local:RangeValidationRule ></local:RangeValidationRule>
                       </Binding.ValidationRules>
                   </Binding>
               </TextBox.Text>
           </TextBox>
            <Slider x:Name="Slider0" Margin="5" Minimum="0" Maximum="100"></Slider>
       </StackPanel>
        <Grid Grid.Row="1">
           <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
               <ColumnDefinition Width="*"></ColumnDefinition>
               <ColumnDefinition Width="200"></ColumnDefinition>
           </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
           <StackPanel Grid.Column="0" Margin="10">
               <ListBox Margin="5" Height="200" ItemsSource="{Binding Path=Planes}">
                   <ListBox.ItemTemplate>
                       <DataTemplate>
                           <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
                               <Image Margin="0,2,0,2" Width="50" Source="{Binding Path=Category,Converter={StaticResource CTS}}"></Image>
                               <TextBlock Margin="0,2,0,2" Width="200" TextAlignment="Center" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="{Binding Path=Name}"></TextBlock>
                               <CheckBox Margin="0,2,0,2" Width="20"  IsChecked="{Binding Path=State,Converter={StaticResource STB}}"></CheckBox>
                           </StackPanel>
                       </DataTemplate>
                   </ListBox.ItemTemplate>
               </ListBox>
               <Button  Margin="5" Height="50" Content="Load" Click="ButtonLoad_OnClick"></Button>
               <Button Margin="5" Height="50" Content="Save" Click="ButtonSave_OnClick"></Button>

           </StackPanel>
           <StackPanel Grid.Column="1">
               <TextBlock Margin="5,5,5,0" Text="Output Data:"></TextBlock>
               <TextBox x:Name="TextBox" Margin="5" Height="310" BorderBrush="Black" Text="{Binding Path=Output}"></TextBox>
           </StackPanel>
       </Grid>
    </Grid>
</Window>

​ 如下所示,当我们点击Load 按钮后,加载出来列表,点击 Save 按钮后,把整个列表输出到右边的文本框:

/// <summary>
    /// Window3.xaml 的交互逻辑
    /// </summary>
    public partial class Window3 : Window
    {
        private readonly Window3VM vm;
        public Window3()
        {
            InitializeComponent();

            this.DataContext= vm =new Window3VM();
        }

        private void ButtonLoad_OnClick(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            vm.Planes=new ObservableCollection<Plane>()
            {
                new Plane(){Name = "B-1", Category = Category.Bomber, State = State.Unknown,},
                new Plane(){Name = "F-35",Category = Category.Fighter,State = State.Unknown,},
                new Plane(){Name = "B-6", Category = Category.Bomber, State = State.Unknown,},
                new Plane(){Name = "F-22",Category = Category.Fighter,State = State.Unknown,},
                new Plane(){Name = "J-20",Category = Category.Fighter,State = State.Unknown,},
            };
        }

        
        private void ButtonSave_OnClick(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            foreach (var plane in vm.Planes)
            {
                sb.Append($"{plane.Category},{plane.Name},{plane.State}\r\n");
            }

            vm.Output = sb.ToString();
        }
    }

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