使用 shell 脚本自动对比两个安装目录并生成差异补丁包

FFmpeg libswscale源码分析2-转码命令行与滤镜图

问题的提出

公司各个业务线的安装包小则几十兆、大则几百兆,使用自建的升级系统向全国百万级用户下发新版本时,流量耗费相当惊人。有时新版本仅仅改了几个 dll ,总变更量不过几十 K 而已,也要发布一个完整版本。为了降低流量费用,我们推出了补丁升级的方式:产品组将修改的 dll 单独挑选出来,加上一个配置文件压缩成包,上传到自建的升级后台;在客户端,识别到补丁包类型后,手动解压并替换各个 dll 完成安装(之前是直接启动下载好的安装包)。这种方式一经推出,受到了业务线的追捧。然而在使用过程中,也发现一些问题,就是在修改完一个源文件后,受影响的往往不止一个 dll,如果仅把其中一两个 dll 替换了,没替换的 dll 很可能就会和新的 dll 产生接口不兼容,从而引发崩溃。而有的安装包包含了几十个、上百个 dll,如果一一对比,非常费时费力。特别是一些 dll 仅仅是编译时间不一样,通过普通的文件对比工具,根本无法判断这个 dll  的源码有没有改过,这让开发人员非常头大。

问题的解决

其实这个问题用 c++ 写个程序是可以解决的,但是一想到要遍历目录、构造文件名 map、对比两个目录中的文件名、对比相同文件名的内容、复制文件到目标目录、压缩目标目录…这一系列操作时,我觉得还是算了 —— 都得从头开始写,工作量不小。而 msys2 或 windows 中就有不少现成的命令可以用,例如对比目录可以用 diff -r 命令、对比 win32 可执行文件可以用 dumpbin /disasm 命令反编译然后再用 diff 命令对比、压缩文件夹可以使用 7z 命令等等,完全不用重复造轮子,直接用 shell 将它们粘合起来就完事了!下面就来看看我是怎么用 shell 脚本来写这个小工具吧。

处理命令行参数

这个脚本一开始先处理输入的命令行参数:

  1 # return code:
  2 # 0 : success
  3 # 1 : no difference
  4 # 2 : compress failure
  5 # 3 : create file/dir failure (privilege ?)
  6 # 126 : file/dir existent
  7 # 127 : invalid arguments
  8 
  9 function usage ()
 10 {
 11     echo "Usage: diffpacker.sh -o oldversionfolder -n newversionfolder -r relativepath -x exportfolder -v version [-s sp] [-t (verbose)] [-e (exactmode)]"
 12     
 13     exit 127
 14 }
 15 
 16 srcdir=
 17 dstdir=
 18 reldir=
 19 outdir=
 20 version=
 21 sp=0
 22 verbose=0
 23 exactmode=0
 24 setupdir="setup"
 25 # pure windows utilities subdir
 26 win32="win32" 
 27 
 28 if [ "${$*/-t//}" != "$*" ]; then
 29     # dump parameters when verbose on
 30     echo "total $# param(s):"
 31     for var in $*; do
 32         echo "$var"
 33     done
 34 fi
 35 
 36 
 37 while getopts "o:n:r:x:v:s:te" arg 
 38 do
 39     case $arg in
 40         o)
 41             srcdir=$OPTARG
 42             ;;
 43         n)
 44             dstdir=$OPTARG
 45             ;;
 46         r)
 47             reldir=$OPTARG
 48             ;;
 49         x)
 50             outdir=$OPTARG
 51             ;;
 52         v)
 53             version=$OPTARG
 54             ;;
 55         s)
 56             sp=$OPTARG
 57             ;;
 58         t)
 59             verbose=1
 60             ;;
 61         e) 
 62             exactmode=1
 63             ;;
 64         ?)  
 65             echo "unkonw argument: $arg"
 66             usage
 67             exit 127
 68             ;;
 69     esac
 70 done
 71 
 72 # reldir can be empty
 73 if [ -z "$srcdir" -o -z "$dstdir" -o -z "$outdir" -o -z "$version" ]; then
 74     echo "empty parameter found: $srcdir, $dstdir, $outdir, $version"
 75     usage
 76     exit 127
 77 fi
 78 
 79 #replace all \ to / to avoid shell string choked on \ 
 80 srcdir=${srcdir//\\/\/}
 81 dstdir=${dstdir//\\/\/}
 82 reldir=${reldir//\\/\/}
 83 outdir=${outdir//\\/\/}
 84 
 85 echo "srcdir=$srcdir"
 86 echo "dstdir=$dstdir"
 87 echo "reldir=$reldir"
 88 echo "outdir=$outdir"
 89 echo "version=$version"
 90 echo "sp=$sp"
 91 echo "verbose=$verbose"
 92 echo "exactmode=$exactmode"
 93 echo ""
 94 
 95 if [ ! -d "$srcdir" ]; then 
 96     echo "not a directory : $srcdir"
 97     exit 126
 98 fi
 99 
100 if [ ! -d "$dstdir" ]; then 
101     echo "not a directory : $dstdir"
102     exit 126
103 fi
104 
105 #if [ -e "$outdir" ]; then
106 resp=$(ls -A "$outdir")
107 if [ "$resp" != "" ]; then
108     echo "out directory not empty: $outdir, fatal error!"
109     exit 126
110 fi 
111 
112 if [ "${outdir:$((${#outdir}-1))}" == "/" ]; then 
113     # remove tailing /
114     outdir=${outdir%?}
115 fi
116 
117 if [ ! -z "$reldir" ] && [ "${reldir:$((${#reldir}-1))}" == "/" ]; then 
118     # remove tailing /
119     reldir=${reldir%?}
120 fi
121 
122 srcasm="src.asm"
123 dstasm="dst.asm"
124 dirdiff="dir.diff"
125 patdiff="diffpattern.txt"
126 itemcnt=0
127 jsonhead=\
128 "{\n"\
129 "  \"version\": \"$version\",\n"\
130 "  \"sp\": \"$sp\",\n"\
131 "  \"actions\": \n"\
132 "  [\n"
133 
134 json=
135 jsontail=\
136 "\n  ]\n"\
137 "}\n"
138 
139 echo "exclude patterns: "
140 while read line
141 do
142     echo $line
143 done < "$patdiff"
144 
145 # to avoid user not end file with \n
146 if [ ! -z "$line" ]; then 
147     echo "$line"
148 fi 
149 echo ""

简单解说一下:

  • 16-26:声明用到的变量;
  • 28-34:如果命令行中含有 -t (verbose) 选项,则打印命令行各个参数;
  • 37-70:使用 getopts 命令解析命令行,这个脚本接收以下选项:
    • -o (old) 用于对比的旧目录;
    • -n (new) 用于对比的新目录;
    • -r (relative) 补丁包根目录相对于安装目录的位置,有时可能只针对安装目录的某个子目录进行 patch;
    • -x (output) 输出补丁包的目录;
    • -v (version) 补丁包版本号,写入配置文件用;
    • -s (serial pack) 补丁号,写入配置文件用;
    • -t (verbose) 详细输出;
    • -e (exact mode) 配置文件中增加和替换文件项将按每项对应一段 json 的方式精确设置,否则按整个目录递归覆盖设置。
  • 72-77:空路径校验;
  • 79-83:替换路径中的反斜杠为斜杠,因 shell 会将反斜杠识别为转义字符的开始;
  • 85-93:打印识别后的各选项,方便出问题时排错;
  • 95-120:路径校验,包括:
    • 对比目录不得为普通文件;
    • 输出目录不得含有文件(防止将中间对比结果和上一次或其它对比结果放在一起打包);
    • 剔除输出目录与相对目录的结尾斜杠(方便后续处理)。
  • 122-137:中间变量的定义,包含反编译中间文件、目录对比中间文件、忽略文件模式的中间文件以及生成配置文件的 json 头和尾;
  • 139-149:在对比目录时,用户可以提供一个要忽略的文件模式(pattern)列表,例如不对比 [Dd]ebug、[Ss]ymbol、*.pdb 这些编译中间目录或文件,可以使用正则表达式,每行一个。这里打印这些 pattern 用于排错。

对比目录

经过前期的铺垫,进入第一个重头戏:

 1 if [ -f "$patdiff" ]; then
 2     diff -qr "$srcdir" "$dstdir" -X "$patdiff" > "$dirdiff"
 3 else
 4     diff -qr "$srcdir" "$dstdir" > "$dirdiff"
 5 fi 
 6 
 7 while read line
 8 do
 9     if [ $verbose != 0 ]; then 
10         echo $line
11     fi 
12 
13     tmp=$(echo $line | sed -n 's/Files \(.*\) and \(.*\) differ$/\1\\n\2/p')
14     if [ ! -z "$tmp" ]; then 
15         left=$(echo -e $tmp | sed -n 1p)
16         right=$(echo -e $tmp | sed -n 2p)
17         if [ $verbose != 0 ]; then 
18             echo -e "left =$left, \nright=$right"
19         fi 
20         ……
21     else 
22         tmp=$(echo $line | sed -n 's/Only in \(.*\): \(.*\)/\1\\n\2/p')
23         if [ ! -z "$tmp" ]; then 
24             isdir=0
25             dir=$(echo -e $tmp | sed -n 1p)
26             file=$(echo -e $tmp | sed -n 2p)
27             if [ -d "$dir/$file" ]; then 
28                 isdir=1
29             fi 
30 
31             if [ $verbose != 0 ]; then 
32                 echo "dir=$dir, file=$file, isdir=$isdir"
33             fi
34             ……
35         else 
36             echo "unrecognized diff output: $line"
37         fi 
38     fi
39     echo ""
40 done < "$dirdiff"

 

这段代码省略了一些与对比目录无关的内容,便于看清整个大的流程:

  • 1-5:根据是否有忽略模式文件来调用 diff,当存在这种文件时(上文中的 139-149),增加 -X 选项来添加忽略模式文件到对比目录过程(diff);否则使用简单输出模式(-q)递归(-r)对比目录及其子目录,输出内容保存在 dir.diff 文件中;
  • 7,8,40:遍历 dir.diff 文件内容,根据输出格式的不同,细分为以下几类场景:
    • 两侧都有但文件内容不一致:“Files C:/compare/BIMMAKE.old/BmIGMS/TypeRule4Bimface.json and C:/compare/BIMMAKE/BmIGMS/TypeRule4Bimface.json differ”,通过 sed 匹配例子中高亮部分关键字,就可以分别提取出旧文件与新文件的完整路径(分别为 sed 输出的第一二行,line 13-16);
    • 仅有旧目录有的内容:“Only in C:/compare/BIMMAKE.old/sdk: ViewerConfig.ini”;
    • 仅有新目录有的内容:“Only in C:/compare/BIMMAKE/sdk: Mesh.dll”, 以上两种场景相似,通过 sed 匹配例子中高亮部分关键字,就可以分别提取出目录与文件了(line 22-26),至于是新目录还是旧目录,与新旧根目录做个对比就晓得了,这个后面再说;
    • 两边文件一致:不会有任何输出(这里必需为 diff 命令使用 -q 选项,不然会将文件内容差异也展示出来,那就非常乱了)。下面是一段完整的对比输出(内容超长、展开慎重):
      Files C:/compare/BIMMAKE.old/AppBimmake.exe and C:/compare/BIMMAKE/AppBimmake.exe differ
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      Only in C:/compare/BIMMAKE: BmAppSetting.xml
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文件内容对比

在上面目录对比过程中,如果两边文件都存在而只是内容不同,进入文件内容对比逻辑:

 1 # for windows command, parameter seperator is /
 2 # and bash will autoexpand to DRIVE:/
 3 # here use // to avoid expanding.
 4 $win32/dumpbin //disasm "$left" | sed '5d' > "$srcasm"
 5 
 6 # use sed '5d' to remove a line like :
 7 # Dump of file Bin1334\Release\GSUPService.exe
 8 # which disturb the diff result by writing dir name 
 9 # remove it !!
10 $win32/dumpbin //disasm "$right" | sed '5d' > "$dstasm"
11 
12 if [ $(cat "$srcasm" | wc -l) -gt 10 ] && [ $(cat "$dstasm" | wc -l) -gt 10 ]; then
13     # left & right are all valid PE format 
14     resp=$(diff -q "$srcasm" "$dstasm")
15     if [ $verbose != 0 ]; then 
16         echo "resp=$resp"
17     fi 
18 else
19     resp="non PE format differs"
20     echo "$resp"
21 fi
22 
23 if [ -z "$resp" ]; then 
24     echo -e "   $left \n== $right in asm, skip"
25 else
26     # need to replace
27     echo -e "   $left \n!= $right"
28     relpath=$(get_relative_path "$srcdir" "$left")
29     if [ -z "$relpath" ]; then 
30         echo "find relative path by source dir failed, try dest"
31         relpath=$(get_relative_path  "$dstdir" "$right")
32         if [ -z "$relpath" ]; then
33             echo "find relative path by dest dir failed, skip"
34             continue;
35         fi
36     fi
37 
38     if [ $verbose != 0 ]; then 
39         echo "relpath: $relpath"
40     fi 
41 
42     tarpath="$outdir/$setupdir$relpath"
43     copy_file "$right" "$tarpath"
44     itemcnt=$(($itemcnt+1))
45     if [ $exactmode != 0 ]; then 
46         # 1st argument represent zip folder
47         # 2nd argument represent install folder
48         # differs with copy order !
49         replace_item "$setupdir$relpath" "$relpath"
50     fi
51 fi

 

这里需要考虑二进制可执行文件不能直接对比(同样的代码编译两次得到的可执行文件也不一样,这是因为 PE 文件中包含了生成时间、唯一 ID 等与代码无关的内容),因此需要将其先反编译为汇编文本,再对汇编语句进行对比。这里没有通过文件后缀(dll / exe)来判断是否为可执行文件,这是因为产品中总有一些 dll 有奇奇怪怪的后缀。这里统一采用 dumpbin 进行反汇编,如果成功就是可执行文件;反之就是普通的文本或二进制文件。

  • 1-10:尝试使用 dumpbin 进行反汇编(注意使用 //disasm 来传递 win32 命令选项,因为 msys2 会将单独的 / 认为是根目录从而自动进行扩展、是我们不想要的)。下面是反汇编成功后的输出:
    Microsoft (R) COFF/PE Dumper Version 12.00.40629.0
    Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
    
    
    
    File Type: DLL
    
      0000000180001000: 45 8B C0           mov         r8d,r8d
      ……
      000000018000E202: CC                 int         3
    
      Summary
    
            1000 .data
            1000 .pdata
            7000 .rdata
            1000 .reloc
            1000 .rsrc
            E000 .text
    
    可见 dumpbin 会输出一个占 5 行的头部信息,为了防止这个信息干扰后续的对比,这里使用 sed 删除前 5 行;

  • 12-21:如果旧文件与新文件反汇编结果行数都大于10,说明两者都是可执行文件,去除前 5 行后进行反汇编内容的对比;否则是普通文件,不再进行对比(diff 已告诉我们它们不同)。下面是反汇编失败时的输出:
    $ win32/dumpbin //disasm  C:/compare/BIMMAKE/FillPatternFileApiTestData/right.pat
    Microsoft (R) COFF/PE Dumper Version 12.00.40629.0
    Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
    
    
    Dump of file C:/compare/BIMMAKE/FillPatternFileApiTestData/right.pat
    C:/compare/BIMMAKE/FillPatternFileApiTestData/right.pat : warning LNK4048: Invalid format file; ignored
    
      Summary
    

    可以看到一共只有 9 行输出,而一般成功的反汇编输出少则上百行、多则上万行,再少也不可能少于 10 行输出;

  • 23-36:如果文件内容一样,跳过此文件;否则需要确定当前文件在对比目录中的相对路径。先尝试使用旧目录去获取,如果失败再尝试使用新目录去获取。这里获取相对目录的工作交由 get_relative_path 这个函数来完成,出于对整体的把握,这里不对这些细节展开介绍了;
  • 42-50:通过上面获得的相对路径,就可以在输出目录构建目标文件全路径啦。复制文件的工作交由 copy_file 函数来完成,在内部它先创建对应的目录,然后调用 cp 完成文件复制。如果用户选择了 exact 模式,则将为每项在配置文件中添加一条 json 格式的替换记录 (通过 replace_item 函数),格式类似于下面这样:
    {
      "type": "replace",
      "target": "/Teigha/ACCAMERA_20.8src_14.tx",
      "source": "setup/Teigha/ACCAMERA_20.8src_14.tx"
    },
    

     对于非 exact 模式可以直接将整个目录递归覆盖到目标区域,因而不需要一条条的添加 json 配置。

单个文件处理

在上面的目录对比过程中,如果两边只有一个文件/目录存在,进入单个文件/目录处理逻辑:

 1 relpath=$(get_relative_path "$srcdir" "$dir")
 2 if [ ! -z "$relpath" ]; then 
 3     # need to remove 
 4     echo -e "only in  $srcdir: (old)\n         $dir/$file, \nrelpath: $relpath/$file"
 5     itemcnt=$(($itemcnt+1))
 6     # 1st argument represent install folder
 7     # differs with copy order !
 8     delete_item "$relpath/$file" $isdir
 9 else
10     relpath=$(get_relative_path "$dstdir" "$dir")
11     if [ ! -z "$relpath" ]; then 
12         # need to add
13         echo -e "only in  $dstdir: (new)\n         $dir/$file, \nrelpath: $relpath/$file"
14         copy_file "$dir/$file" "$outdir/$setupdir$relpath/$file"
15         itemcnt=$(($itemcnt+1))
16         if [ $exactmode != 0 ]; then 
17             # 1st argument represent zip folder
18             # 2nd argument represent install folder
19             # differs with copy order !
20             add_item "$setupdir$relpath/$file" "$relpath/$file" $isdir
21         fi
22     else
23         echo "unknown single file: $dir/$file"
24     fi
25 fi

如果单个文件项位于新目录,则新增文件项;如果位于旧目录,则删除:

  • 1-8:计算单个文件项在旧目录的相对路径,如果结果不为空,表示文件项位于旧目录,否则位于新目录。删除文件的工作交由 delete_item 函数完成,其实就是在配置文件中加入一条删除记录:
    {
      "type": "delete",
      "target": "/sdk/QProfile.txt"
    },
    

     如果是单独的目录,则递归删除整个目录:

    {
      "type": "delete_dir",
      "target": "/Share/ViewCoreResources/MaterialLibrary/textures/rainTextures"
    },
    

     删除项是否添加是和 exact 模式无关的,因为目录的递归覆盖只能添加或替换文件,不能删除。

  • 10-21:计算单个文件项在新目录的相对路径,此时结果一般是不为空的,调用 copy_file 函数复制新文件项到输出目录。当用户选择 exact 模式时,在配置文件中加入一条增加记录 (通过 add_item):
    {
      "type": "add",
      "target": "/Teigha/GripPoints_20.8src_14.tx",
      "source": "setup/Teigha/GripPoints_20.8src_14.tx"
    },
    
    如果是单独的目录,则递归增加整个目录:
    {
      "type": "add_dir",
      "target": "//Libraries",
      "source": "setup//Libraries"
    },
    

     copy_file 通过给 cp 传递 -r 选项,可以很好的支持目录的递归拷贝。

    内存屏障在CPU、JVM、JDK中的实现

生成配置文件

处理完各个文件和子目录以后,就可以生成升级需要的配置文件啦:

 1 # remove temporary files
 2 if [ $verbose -eq 0 ]; then
 3     # only remove temporary files 
 4     # when not in verbose mode
 5     rm "$srcasm"
 6     rm "$dstasm"
 7     rm "$dirdiff"
 8 fi 
 9 
10 if [ $itemcnt -eq 0 ]; then 
11     echo "no item add/replace/delete found, stop generating..."
12     exit 1
13 fi 
14 
15 if [ $exactmode -eq 0 ]; then 
16     # not exact mode
17     # add setup dir totally
18     if [ -z "$reldir" ]; then 
19         jsonitem=$(echo "     {\n"\
20         "      \"type\": \"add_dir\",\n"\
21         "      \"target\": \".\",\n"\
22         "      \"source\": \"$setupdir\"\n"\
23         "    }")
24     else
25         jsonitem=$(echo "     {\n"\
26         "      \"type\": \"add_dir\",\n"\
27         "      \"target\": \"$reldir\",\n"\
28         "      \"source\": \"$setupdir\"\n"\
29         "    }")
30     fi
31 
32     if [ $verbose != 0 ]; then 
33         echo -e "$jsonitem"
34     fi
35 
36     if [ -z "$json" ]; then 
37         json="$jsonitem"
38     else 
39         json="$json,\n$jsonitem"
40     fi
41 fi 
42 
43 json="$jsonhead$json$jsontail"
44 echo -e "$json" > "$outdir/upgrade.json"
45 echo "upgrade.json created, $itemcnt items generated"
46 echo -e "$json"

由于之前在处理文件过程中已经将必要的配置信息生成好了,这里的工作其实很简单:

  • 2-8:如果指定 verbose 选项,则保留中间文件用于排错,否则删除;
  • 10-13:如果经过对比,没有任何差异,或两个目录都是空的,导致输出内容为空,则中止并退出整个打包脚本;
  • 15-41:非 exact 模式下,需要添加一条 add_dir 配置来将输出目录中的所有文件递归覆盖到安装目录。如果用户指定了只替换安装目录中的某个子目录,这里需要调整一下目标路径(line 24-30);
  • 43-46:将各个 json 组装成完整内容并生成到输出目录,名称固定为 "upgrade.json"。

生成压缩包

所有内容就绪后就可以压缩成包上传到后台啦:

 1 tarpath="$outdir/*"
 2 if [ "${tarpath/:/}" == "$tarpath" ]; then 
 3     # not contain ':', a relative path
 4     # prefix ./ to avoid generate root dir in 7z
 5     tarpath="./$tarpath"
 6 fi
 7 
 8 $win32/7z a "$setupdir.7z" "$tarpath"
 9 resp=$?
10 if [ -z "$setupdir.7z" ]; then 
11     echo "compressing failed: $resp"
12     exit 2
13 fi
14 
15 mv "$setupdir.7z" "$outdir/$setupdir-$version-$sp.7z"
16 #echo "create 7zip compress packet OK"
17 exit 0

 

这里没有使用 tar cvzf 来生成 setup.tar.gz 文件,因为升级客户端只能接收 7z 格式的压缩包,这里使用 win32 版本的 7z 命令执行压缩过程。从另外的角度来讲,7z 压缩算法也是目前压缩率最高的算法,可以有效的降低网络传输的流量(7z 压缩率亲测高于 zip 及 gz)。这段代码比较简单,就不展开讲解了,最后会生成下面这样的文件结构:

$ ls -lhrt
total 348M
drwxr-xr-x 1 yunh 1049089    0 11月 17 19:18 setup/
-rw-r--r-- 1 yunh 1049089 147K 11月 17 19:19 upgrade.json
-rw-r--r-- 1 yunh 1049089 348M 11月 17 19:19 setup-1.8.0.0-0.7z

所有需要添加和替换的文件都会被放在 setup 目录下,这样在递归替换时就可以避免将无关文件(例如 upgrade.json)替换到安装目录。生成的压缩包命名方式为:setup-version-sp.7z。非 exact 模式生成的配置文件内容如下:

{
  "version": "1.8.0.0",
  "sp": "0",
  "actions": 
  [
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//BmRecentDocumentPathRecord.xml"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/BmWelcomeTemplateFile/小别墅.gbp"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/BmWelcomeTemplateFile/小别墅.png"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/BmWelcomeTemplateFile/老虎窗屋顶.gbp"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/BmWelcomeTemplateFile/老虎窗屋顶.png"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/CadIdentifier/DBErrorReport.txt"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//GPUDriverConfig.ini"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//MjLicense.dll"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//MjRichTextEditor.dll"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//MjUIArchitecture.dll"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//Packing4Rendering.dll"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//QProfile.txt"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//RecentDocumentPathRecord.xml"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//ViewerConfig.ini"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//algorithmLog.ini"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//gdpcore.1.txt"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "//gdpcore.txt"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/sdk/QProfile.txt"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/sdk/ViewerConfig.ini"
     },
     {
       "type": "delete",
       "target": "/sdk/algorithmLog.ini"
     },
     {
       "type": "add_dir",
       "target": ".",
       "source": "setup"
     }
  ]
}

 所有新增及替换操作,全在最后一条 add_dir 配置项了。如果是 exact 模式的话,配置文件就会大很多了,它会针对每个新增、替换项生成一个类似上面删除项的条目,这里就不多做演示了。

用户图形界面

上面的脚本只能通过命令行界面 (CUI) 调用,那能不能将它嵌入到用户图形界面 (GUI) 呢?答案是可以的。

 

上面这个程序是真的只做了界面。在获取用户完整输入后,它创建了一个匿名管道 (CreatePipe),并将管道的一端作为新进程的标准输出 (stdout)、同时用参数构造新进程的命令行 (上面的脚本 diffpacker.sh 作为第一参数) 来启动 bash.exe 进程。当脚本在运行中产生输出时,程序通过匿名管道读取这些输出,并将它们重定向到 UI 底部的输出框,达到实时查看脚本输出的效果。

下载

由于不涉及到后台接口,这个小工具中的脚本、调用到的命令及图形界面源码和可执行程序都是可以完整下载的:https://files.cnblogs.com/files/goodcitizen/diffpacker.zip

有类似需求的同学,改改脚本就可以用啦。其中用到了 msys2,它是一个运行在 windows 上的 bash,我们常用的 git 就使用它作为 git bash 的技术支撑。之前我的不少文章也都涉及过它:

查看博客园积分与排名趋势图的工具 》、《用 shell 脚本做 restful api 接口监控 》、《用 shell 脚本做日志清洗 》,感兴趣的可以参考一下。

下面是 msys2 的主页,可以从这里获取 Windows 上的安装包:https://www.msys2.org/

后记

这个小工具后来在业务线得到了广泛使用,在某个大产品使用过程中还引发了一次血案,关于该案,我现在给大家梳理一下:

产品组有两个 dll 分别封装了基类 (base.dll) 和派生类 (derived.dll);有一次产品组为基类添加了两个成员作为补丁版本,在 diff 过程中成功的识别出了 base.dll 被修改,但是没有将 derived.dll 识别出来,然后就这样没有经由本地验证就向外发布了;结果导致打过补丁的版本一启动就崩溃了,原因是 derived.dll 中旧的派生类和 base.dll 中新的基类二进制不兼容了。

后来他们通过紧急补丁修复了上述问题,在后面复盘问题的过程中,我手动检查了脚本的运行日志,发现确实没有识别出新旧 derived.dll —— 脚本认为它们是二进制相同的。后来查询了一些相关资料,了解到我的 dumpbin /disasm 只是反编译了可执行文件中的代码段,而其它一些段 (例如数据段) 则被遗漏了。上面这个例子中,父类的成员变化后,肯定会有相应的 section 会做出调整,但是我通过调整 dumpbin 的选项也没有对比出这个段在哪里。后来尝试使用 msys2 自带的 objdump 命令去反编译,它确实可以得到更丰富的内容,从而判断出新旧 derived.dll 是不同的,但验证同一段相同代码编译两次生成的 dll 进行对比时,它仍然会告诉我两个 dll 不同!所以我不能简单的使用 objdump 替换 dumpbin,因为如果它报告所有 dll 都不同的话,这实际上就没有意义了。最后,这段代码还是带着 bug 继续“上岗”了,产品组现在多了一个心眼儿,每次生成 patch 后都会亲自做一下验证。

这个故事从侧面说明之前产品组对我的工具的信任程度 —— 那是毫无保留信任啊,哈哈。然而我做这个小工具花了多长时间呢?其实也就一周左右,而且有很多时间是花费在调试 windows 与 shell 的一些不兼容之处,真正写业务代码也就不到一周。如果换作用 c++ 来写呢,我恐怕没有一个月是搞不定的了,这就是使用现成组件“搭积木”带来的效率优势。而 shell 作为各个命令之间的粘合剂,为实现这种装配式的开发提供了必要的支撑。现在回头来看 linux 的设计哲学 —— “有众多单一目的的小程序,一个程序只实现一个功能,多个程序组合完成复杂任务” —— 的的确确是一个法宝啊。

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